Thursday, January 27, 2011

Procedure Text In English

Education English | Procedure Text In English |PROCEDURE Social function Procedure: To help us do a task or make something. They can be a set of instructions or directions.
Text organization:

  • Goals ( the final purpose of doing the instruction) 
  • . Materials ( ingredients, utensils, equipment to do the instructions) ; .
  • Steps ( a set of instruction to achieve the final purpose)
Language features :
  • Use of imperative ( Cut…….., Don’t mix……..)
  • Use of action verbs (turn, put)
  • Use of connectives(first, then, finally)
Social function recount: To tell the readers what happened in the past through a sequence of events.
Generic Structure of Recount:
  • Orientation ( who were involved, when and where was it happened)
  • Events ( tell what happened in a chronological order)
  • Re-orientation ( optional – closure of events)
Language features Recount:
  • Use of pronouns and nouns ( David, he, she)
  • Use of action verbs in past (went, studied)
  • Use of past tense ( We went for a trip to the zoo)
  • Use of adverbial phrases
  • Use of adjectives 
Social function narrative: To amuse or entertain the readers with actual or imaginary experience in different ways. Narrative always deals with some problems which lead to the climax and then turn into a solution to the problem.

Generic Structure Narrative:
  • Orientation ( who was involved, when and where was it happened)
  • Complication ( a problem arises and followed by other problems)
  • Resolution ( provide solution to the problem)
Language features Narrative:
  • Use of noun phrases ( a beautiful princess, a huge temple)
  • Use of adverbial phrases of time and place ( in the garden, two days ago)
  • Use of simple past tense ( He walked away from the village)
  • Use of action verbs ( walked, slept)
  • Use of adjectives phrases ( long black hair)
Social Function descriptive: To describe a particular person, place or thing.

Generic Structure descriptive:
  • Identification (identify phenomenon to be described)
  • Description (describe parts, qualities, characteristics)

Language features descriptive:
  • Focus on specific participants
  • Use of attributive and identifying processes
  • Frequent use classifiers in nominal groups.
  • Use of the Simple Present Tense


Social function news item: To inform readers or listeners about events of the day which are considered newsworthy or important.

Generic structure news item:
  • News worthy event ( tells the event in a summary form)
  • Background events ( elaborate what happened, tell what caused the incident)
  • Sources ( comments by participants, witnesses, authorities and experts involved in the event)

Language features news item:
  • Information on the use of head lines.
  • Use of action verbs( hit, attack)
  • Use of saying verbs( said, added, claimed)
  • Use of passive sentences ( Aceh was hit by Tsunami in 2004)
  • Use of adverbs in passive sentences (The victims were badly injured)

Social function report: To describe the way things are (for example: a man -made thing, animals, plants). The things must be a representative of their class.

Text organization report:
  • General classification (introduces the topic of the report/tells what phenomenon under discussion is.)
  • Description (tell the details of topic such as physical appearance, parts, qualities, habits/behaviour).

Language features report:
  • Use of general nouns ( Whales, Kangaroo, Computer)
  • Use of present tense(Komodo dragons usually weigh more than 160 kg)
  • Use of behavioural verbs (Snakes often sunbathe in the sun)
  • Use of technical terms ( Water contains oxygen and hydrogen)
  • Use of relating verbs (is, are, has)


Social function analytical exposition: To persuade the readers or the listeners that something in the case, to analyze or to explain.

Generic Structure analytical exposition:
  • Thesis (usually includes a preview argument. It introduces topics and indicates the writer’s position)
  • Arguments (consists of a point and elaboration sequence. The number of points may vary, but each must be supported by discussion and evidence)
  • Reiteration (restates the position more forcefully in the light of the arguments presented)

Language features analytical exposition:
  • Emotive words such as : alarmed, worried.
  • Words that qualify statements such as: usual probably
  • Words that link arguments such as: firstly, however, on the other hand, therefore.
  • Usually present tense
  • Compound and complex sentences
Social function spoof: To tell an event with a humorous twist.

Generic structure spoof text:
  • Orientation (who were involved, when and where was happened)
  • Events ( tell what happened in a chronological order)
  • Twist (provide the funniest part of the story)
Language features spoof:
  • Use of connectives (first, then, finally)
  • Use of adverbial phrases of time and place (in the garden, two days ago)
  • Use of simple past tense (he walked away from the village)

Social function hortatory exposition: To persuade the readers or the listeners that something should or should not be the case.

Generic structure hortatory exposition:
  • Thesis ( stating an issue of concern)
  • Arguments ( giving reasons for concern, leading recommendation)
  • Recommendation (stating what ought or ought not to happen)
Language features hortatory exposition:
  • Emotive words: alarmed, worried
  • Words that qualify statements: usual probably
  • Words that link arguments: firstly, however, on the other hand, therefore
  • Usually present tense
  • Compound and complex sentences
  • Modal auxiliary: can, may, should, must
Social function explanation: To explain the process involved in the formation or working of natural or socio cultural phenomena

Generic structure explanation:
  • A general statement to position the reader
  • A sequenced explanation of why or how something occurs
  • Closing
Language features explanation:
  • Focus on generic, non-human participants.
  • Use mainly of general and abstract nouns, action verbs, simple present tense, passive voice, conjunction of time and cause, noun phrases, complex sentences, and technical language.


Social function discussion: To present information and opinions about more than one side of an issue (“for” points “against” points)

Generic structure discussion:
  • Opening statement presenting the issue
  • Arguments or evidence for different points of view ( pros and cons)
  • Concluding recommendation
Language features discussion:
  • Use of general nouns: alcohol, abortion, smoking, etc.
  • Use of relating verbs: is, are, etc.
  • Use of thinking verbs: think, feel, hope believe, etc.
  • Use of additive connectives: addition, furthermore, besides, etc.
  • Use of contrastive connectives: although, even, if, nevertheless, etc.
  • Use of causal connectives: because, because of, etc.
  • Use of modal auxiliary: must, should, etc.
  • Use of adverbial manner: hopefully.
Social function review: To critique an art work or event for a public audience

Generic structure review:
  • Orientation ( background information on the text)
  • Evaluation ( concluding statement : judgment, opinion, or recommendation. It can consist of more than one.
  • Interpretative Recount ( summary of an art works including characters and plot).
  • Evaluative summation: the last opinion consisting the appraisal or the punch line of the art works being criticized.

Language features review:
  • Focus on specific participants
  • Use of adjectives
  • Use of long and complex clauses
  • Use of metaphor
Reviews are used to summarize, analyze and respond to art works. They may include: movie, TV shows, books, plays, concerts, etc.

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