Discourse as the general term for language that has been produced as the result of an act of communication. Discourse refers to larger unit of language such as paragraphs, conversations, and interviews.
A view of language which takes into account the fact that linguistic patterns exist across stretches of text.
Discourse analysis might for example examine paragraph structure, the organisation of whole texts , and typically patterns in conversational interactions.such as the way speaker open and close and take turn in conversation. They might also look at vocabulary patterns across texts, words that link section of text together and the ways item such as it and they point backward or forward in a text.
Discourse analysis is also consider the relationship between language and context in which it used and are connected with the description and analysis of both spoken and written interaction.
Pragmatics is especially interested in the relationship between language and context. It include the study of how interpretation of language depends on knowledge of the world, how speaker use and understand utterances, and how the structure of sentence is influenced by the relationship between speakers and hearers. Thus it is more interested in what people mean by what they say, than what words or phrase might in their most literal sense by mean themsleves. Pragmatic is sometimes contrasted with semantic, which deals with literal or sentence meaning. That is meaning without reference to users or purpose of communication.
Discourse and pragmatic then in the sense we will be considering them here focus on :
The relationship between language and social and cultural contexts in which it is used.
Knowledge about language beyon the word, clause, phrase and sentence that is needed for succesful communication.
Linguistic patterns that occur across stretches of spoken and written language.
What people mean by what they say, and how they work out that understanding.
The way language presents different views of the world and different understandings.
Aspect of use pragmatics : meaning in context :ex. The relationship between what we say, what we mean, and what we understand according to particular context or situation.
Aspect of use discourse : patterns of language across text :ex. Paragraph structure, organisation of whole texts, rules for opening and closing conversations, rules of taking turns in taking turns in conversation,patterns of vocabulary, linking words, pronouns for backward or forward reference; the way language reflects different views of th world and different understanding.