Saturday, February 5, 2011

The Nature Of Approaches And Methods In Language Teaching

An approach is a set corelative assumptions dealing with the nature of language teaching and learning. An approach is axiomatic. It describes the nature of the subject matter to be taught.
Method is an overall plan for the orderly presentation of language material, no part of which contradicts and all of which is based upon the selecected approach. An approach is axiomatic , a method is procedurall.
A technique is implementational that which actually takes places in a classroom. It is particular trick, stratagem or contrivance used to accomplish an immediate objective. Techniques mus be consistent with a method and therefore in harmony with an approach as well.
At least three different theoritical views of language and the nature of language proficiency explicitly or implicitly inform current approaches and methods in language teaching. The first and the most traditional of the three, is the structurak view, the view that language is a system of structurally related elements for the coding  of meaning. The second view of language is the functional view, the view that language is vehicle for the expression of functional meaning. The third view of language can be called the interactional view, it sees language as vehicle for the realization of interpersonal relation and for the performance of social transactions between individuals.
A learning theory underlying an approach or method respond to two questions :1. what are the physcolinguistic and cognitive procesess involved in language learning? And 2. what are the condition that need to be met in order for these learning processes to be activated?
Different theories of language and language learning influence the focus of a method ; that is they determined what a method sets out to achieve. The spesification of particular learning objectives,however is a product of design, not of approach.
The objectives of method, wheter define primarily in terms of product or process, are attained through the instructional process, through organized and directed interaction of teachers , learners and material in the classroom.
A method reflects explicit or implicit responses to questions concerning the learners contribution to the learning process. This is seem in the types of activities learners carry out,the degree of control learners have over the content of learning, the patterns of learner grouping adopted, the degree to which learners influence, the learning of others, and the view of the learners as processor, performer, intiator and problem solver.
Learner roles in instructional system are closely linked to the teachers status and function. Teahcer role are similarly ultimately both to assumption about language learning at the level of approach.
The instructional material in their turn further specify subject matter content, even where no syllabus exist and define or suggest the intensity of coverage syllabus item, allocating the amount of time, attention and detailed particular syllabus items task require.

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