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Thursday, October 18, 2012

Types of Genre

Education English | Types of Genre | In this change, I will give you an information about 12 types of genres according to Iwan (2009: 1), these are :
1. Procedure
2. Recount
3. Narrative
4. Description
5. News Item
6. Report
7. Analytical Exposition
8. Spoof
9. Hortatory Exposition
10. Explanation
11. Discussion
12. Review
The twelve types of genre that mention above, will be described completely from the explanation of each genres, the purpose of each genres, the social function of each genres, and the obligatory elements of each genres. Therefore, all of the readers be able to recognize all of about genres. More details of 12 types of genres will mention in the following texts below :
1. “Procedure”
The purpose is to help us do a task or make something. They can be a set of instructions or directions. The generic structure are goals, materials and steps. Language features comprise of the use of imperative, use of action verbs and use of connectives.
2. “Recount”
The purpose is to tell the readers what happened in the past through a sequence of events. The generic structure are orientation, events, and reorientation. Language features comprise of the use of pronouns and noun, use of action verbs in past, use of past tense, use of adverbial phrases, and use of adjectives.
3. “Narrative”
The purpose is to amuse or entertain the readers with actual or imaginary experience indifferent ways. Narrative always deals with some problems which lead to the climax and then turn into a solution to the problem. The generic structure are orientation, complication, and resolution. Language features
comprise of the use of noun phrases, use of adverbial phrases of time and place, use of simple past tense, use of action verbs, and use of adjectives phrases. 
4. “Description”
The purpose is to describe a particular person, place or thing. The generic
structure are identification and description. Language features comprise of the
focus on specific participants, use of attributive and identifying processes,
frequent use classifiers in nominal groups, and use of the Simple Present Tense
5. “News Item”
The purpose is to inform readers or listeners about events of the day which are considered news worthy or important. The generic structure consist of the news worthy event, background events and sources. Language features comprise of the information on the use of head lines, use of action verbs, use of saying verb, use of adverb in passive sentences.
6. “Report”
The porpose is to describe the way things are (for example: a man -made thing, animals, plants). The things must be a representative of their class. The generic structure are general classification and description. Language features comprise of the use of general nouns, use of present tense, use of behavioural verbs, use of technical terms, use of relating verbs.
7. “Analytical Exposition”
The purpose is to persuade the readers or the listeners that something in the case, to analyze or to explain. The generic structure are thesis, arguments and reiteration. Language features comprise of the emotive words, words that qualify statements such as: usual probably, words that link arguments, usually present tense and use of compound and complex sentence.
8. Spoof
The porpose is to tell an event with a humorous twist. The generic structure are orientation, events, and twist. Language features comprise of the use of connectives, use of adverbial phrases of time and place and use of simple past tense.
9. “Hortatory Exposition”
The purpose is to persuade the readers or the listeners that something should
or should not be the case. The generic structure are thesis, arguments, and
recommendation. Language features comprise of the use emotive words, words
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that qualify statement, words that link arguments, usually present tense,
compound and complex sentences and modal auxiliary.
10. “Explanation”
The purpose is to explain the process involved in the formation or working of natural or socio cultural phenomena. The generic structure consist of a general statement to position the reader, a sequenced explanation of why or how something occurs and closing. Language features comprise of the focus on generic, non-human participants and present tense, passivevoice, conjunction of time and cause, noun phrases, complex sentences, and technical language.
11. “Discussion”
The purpose is to present information and opinions about more than one side of anissue (“for” points “against” points). The generic structure are opening statement presenting the issue, arguments or evidence for different points of view, concluding recommendation. Language features comprise of the use of general nouns, use of relating verbs, use of thinking verbs, use of additive connectives, use of contrastive connectives, use of causal connectives, use of modal auxiliary, and use of adverbial manner
12. “Review”
The purpose is to critique an art work or event for a public audience. The generic structure are orientation, evaluation, Interpretative recount, evaluative summation. Language features comprise of the focus on specific participants, use of adjectives, use of long and complex clauses and use of metaphor.

Genre and Register

Education English | Genre and Register | In this case, the writer will explain about the relationship between genre and register depend on argue from Halliday and Hasan (1985: 12), they define the three main concepts, they are : 1. The field of discourse refers to what is happening, to the nature of the social action that is taking place: what is it that the participant are engaged in, in which the language figures as some essential component
2. The tenor of discourse refers to who is taking part, to the nature of the participants, their statuses and roles: what kinds of role relationship obtain among the participants, including permanent and temporary relationships of one kind or another, both the types of speech role that they are taking on in the dialogue and the whole cluster of socially significant relationships in which theya re involved ?
3. The mode of discourse refers to what part the language is playing,what it is that the participants are expecting the language to do for them in that situation: the symbolic organization of the text, the status that it has, and its function in the context, including the channel (is it spoken or written or some combination of the two?) and also the rhetorical mode, what is being achieved by the text i terms of such categories as persuasive, expository, didactic, and the like.The three features, field, tenor and mode are called register. We can conclude from the states above if register can be defined as a particular configuration of field, tenor and mode choices. The context situation of the text is the immediate environment in which a text is actually functioning. The three register variables use in the grammatical form from language (field, tenor and mode). From it, only two ways that has done. The first, by making certain linguistic choices much more likely than others, so that when we read or hear a text certain patterns start to emerge in a non-random way, in what Martin argue (2001: 157) “These patterns re-present a particular register choice telling us it’s there”. The second, the register categories take over a small number of linguistic choices as their own, in what Martin calls ‘indexical realization’, that is, certain linguistic choices, once made by the text producer, lead the hearer/reader to immediately identify the register in which the text is being produced. In short, register corresponds to the context of situation, and genre to the context of culture.
Genres are realize through a language . Genres create meaning by shaping the register variables tenor (how people relate to one another within this situated event) and mode (is the medium) in Martin’s argument (2001: 189). Genre is realized in two ways namely probabilistic and indexical ways. both in
probabilistic and indexical ways. Martin (2001: 212) uses narrative to illustrate this point: two of the most famous indexical forms in narrative genres are the opening ‘once upon a time’ and the closing ‘and they lived happily ever after’. From this, we immediately know which genre we are dealing with. Probabilistic realizations are also relevant in narratives.
The Orientation from Labov & Walet Sky (1967: 12), which are introduces the characters and locates the story in time and space, tends to include relational clauses. The complication, which answers the question “What happened then?”, tends to include a series of material processes (“She did this and then she did that ...”), leading to something unexpected (a crisis). This is followed by the Resolution (“What finally happened?”), which presents similar forms to those found in the Complication until the problem is solved. Finally, the narrator(s) might make comments on the point of her/his narrative, in what Labov & Walet Sky (1967:18) called Coda, often by using a demonstrative pronoun such as ‘this’ combined with an expression of attitude to refer to the story itself (E.g. “That was really scary”).
We have to keep in mind, though these patterns are not open but they can be adapted by the text producer according to her/his interests. As Martin (2001: 162) points out: “Since both genre and register are realised for the most part probabilistically, they allow the individual considerable freedom in determining just how they are to be realized. The patterns of selection by which we recognise a genre, or some field, mode or tenor, are distributed throughout a text; there are only a few local constraints.”

Communicative Purposes, Generic Structure and Grammar

Education English | Continuation of Definition of Genre | Communicative Purposes, Generic Structure and Grammar |  Nieminen, T (2004: 4) said that the communicative purpose is influences the formation of genres. The first thing that should we do when we plan to write some text is know the purpose of the text, for what we write the text, for whom the text directed and what the contents include the text. All those things influence overall structure of a text (structure, grammar and vocabularies). In short, a text is structured in a way to achieve their purposes.
There will be a different structure of the text if you want to re-tell an event. For example, in creating a recount text, which is a text that re-tells –about past events. We will begin this story with orientation, where we provide the setting and introduce the participants, and then provide the sequence of events that has happened. In short, the structure of a text follows some particular stages, the beginning, middle and end parts of a text. The structure is varied according to the purpose.
The differences are also found in grammar choices. Description texts tend to use simple present tense, and the identifying and attributive processes (the use of verbs being and having). However, in recount text, since the purpose is to retell about a past event, of course it will use past tense, and also the temporal connectives which indicate sequence of events (after,next, then, etc.). In the selection of language features in each genre also play an important role. The language features it should be suitable with each genres (the way the text organized, the use of particular grammatical structures, and the vocabulary choices), influence how the message are received by the audience.

Definition of Genre

Education English  | Definition of Genre | Academic Brooklyn in English tell that Genre is a French term derived from the Latin genus, generis, meaning type, sort, or kind. The term used to be related to the category of literary composition, such as novels, plays, short stories, poems, etc. It is also used to refer to types of films and musical categories depend on John (1997:21). Breure, (2001: 2) formulated the genre into the following concepts :
1. Dynamism. Genres are dynamic rhetorical forms that are developed from actors' responses to recurrent situations and that serve to stabilize experience and give its coherence and meaning. Genres change over time in response to their users' sociocognitive needs.
2. Situatedness. Our knowledge of genres is derived from and embedded in our participation in the communicative activities of daily and professional life. As such, genre knowledge is a form of “situated cognition” that continues to develop as we participate in the activities of the ambient culture.
3. Form and content. Genre knowledge embraces both form and content, including a sense of what content is appropriate to a particular purpose in a particular situation at a particular point of time.
4. Duality of structure. As we draw on genre rules to engage in professional activities, we constitute social structures (in professional, institutional, and organizational contexts) and simultaneously reproduce these structures.
5. Community ownership. Genre conversations signal a discourse community's norms, epistemology, ideology, and social ontology.
To be continue...

Wednesday, October 17, 2012


Education English | Aposiopesis | “Aposiopesis consists of leaving a statement unfinished (Etherton,
1973:209)”. This is often done to increase suspense or to leave the reader to form his own conclusion. Furthermore, the examples of aposiopesis according to Etherton are:
a. You‟d better do it or else…
b. After a short chase, the angry villagers caught up with the murderer. Two burly young men jumped on the criminal and brought him to the ground.
Waving their sticks, the rest of the villagers closed in on the helpless man…. The sentence “you‟d better do it or else…” is not finish yet. The sentence is deliberately broken off and left unfinished. So the writer wants the readers to think about their own conclusion, the ending to be supplied by the imagination, giving an impression of unwillingness or inability to continue. This invites the other person to complete the sentence, either in their imagination or even speaking out loud. The completion of the sentence may also be rhetorical, where both speaker and audience know the answer and it needs not be said, for example when a person is being suggestive.